1.6L , Bottom End work or block rebuild G16b ?
I bought a dead 97 Geo tracker , it has the G16B (or KV) 16valve motor, DOA dirt cheap and blown motor. (owner didn't believe in antifreeze) 4 Door , 5speed, 2WD.
My wife, calls it a Geo Cracker. (LOL)
I have done this before, so I just dove in.
My Log: (see here, for why, this is tricky)
My Block is cracked in half from ice damage ( at #3 main). ( kicked block to the curb)
Finding good running (or even serviceable) engine blocks are hard to find after 20 years. G16A or B. (and less each year)
So, I found one on "Craigslist", with 96k on block. now, I have one good block and 2 bad cranks ,both are bad rod bearings.(spun) but cost me $100 to get an un-cracked block.
I installed my rebuilt crank in my new naked block with new bearings. end to end. (and measured with TLC)
Rebuilt blocks are over $1000 HERE IS MY MOTOR PULL SLIDE SHOW.
There are only 2 paths to rebuilding yours, DIY or take it to a machine shop and say, rebuild this sucker. Here is my engine, pull page.
DIY: (skipping no steps, cross fingers?)
BTW the 8v and 16v have same block, same crankshaft, same rods but different pistons and different front crank cam COG. (by same, that means the Suzuki official part numbers are the SAME) (some early 89 cranks can vary, I just don't run 89 early cranks)
I discovered my cylinder bores to be near perfect on the Craigs block, he said it had 97k, it seems so.. top to bottom, no wear and no out of round, near perfect. (I can see hone marks top to bottom, nice block)
Step one, head off, is to mark each piston 1,2,3,4 on the top , I use a emboss stamp or center punched dots (count).
SUB GRADES (all bearings , pistons and cylinder walls have sub grades Piston grade 2 is the smaller piston, and same with cylinder walls. (all this is covered in chapter 6 of FSM ,it's no secret)
That means if you attempt to put a #1 (larger) piston into any #2 (smaller) hole bore, you will fail. The clearance doing, that illegal act, can cause piston to cylinder clearance to be 0.0004" (.0008" is lower limit) FAIL YOU WILL (Yoda's voice) "facts" shown in the FSM.
I look on top deck of block and see "1221" stamps, this means cylinder 2 and 3 use piston grade 2 size. (mix no parts, be it pistons, pins, rods, rod caps, bearing caps, none !)
The engine was gang bored, and this machine is very crude. (same with crank shaft)
So, day 1 in the factory floor the line operator , hand graded parts, he measured the bores then reached for the #1 or #2 sub sized pistons. (the block maker , did the 1221 stamp)
What you have now, I could never guess, that it the job for MIKE's (micrometer tools)
Right?, means the right hand of car, drivers seated in car seat perspective.
I never say passenger side due to goofy conflicts, with Right Hand Drive and LHD, cars. (the word Right word works on all cars, seated, in USA or in UK.)
The Rules: Do's and Do not's:
One needs and FSM manual Full Factory Service manual chapter 6 and the specific actions, are all in the book. $20 on Ebay.
All measurements are easy and the only hard thing, is checking main bearing alignment of the bores. (more later)
I exchanged my bad crank for a new crank $200 and got .25mm undersized crank and matching bearings. (Marshall's crank via Rockauto) Some times its missing this item at Rock)
My local machine shop charges only $35 per 4 banger crank grind. (they do 100s a day there, even up to Mack truck engines) I paid $10 extra for the polish step, (I'm a big spender?)
I then bore checked my main bearing bores and they were in spec. (using a bore gage ( .0001 accuracy)
Below are all the steps I took , in order.
In each case, I used Assembly lube on all bearings and all bolt threads and all bolt washers on top. Special lube, not just motor oil. (Assembly lube is best if engine , will set for a while)
I never chase threads with a tap as this damages them (only if damaged already, I do ) I use a roll edge chase tap ( Google that) and darn hard to find for Metric here...in USA land.
Clean the thread holes with brushes and blow them out with shop air and then lube them with assembly lube.
I always chase the water pump threads.
The #1 reason for rebuild failures, is dirt. #2 is not priming the oil pump and not checking top end oiling, 1,2,3 , causes.
All the steps I took:
Do not put the head gasket on upside down, see the word "UP" (Felpro has it)
Never install any motor and just start it up, never ! Do the prime oil gallery steps and top end oiling checks and the no spark 55psi checks.
Do not start the motor with the oil pump not primed.
Do not start the motor with the oil filter not primed.
Do not crank motor with Ignition enabled. (for the pressure check and top end oiling checks.) ( I unplugged the Distributor primary cable plug and pull the fuel pump relay) Fire Safety
Do not crank motor with fuel pump enabled. (for the pressure check and top end oiling checks.) Fire Safety
Do check compression NOW. ( if bad , find what you did wrong) (doing this with engine parked on floor is 10x easier) Cam timed wrong? Lash not set?
Do not just start a motor WILLY NILLY, or FAIL.
Everyone , it seems, wants simple solutions. ( engines are not simple to build, and last)
You want simple?:
There is only 1 way to do that, and that is to take the car to the top rated machine shop in town , "specializing in Japan motors".
I hope my log, helps you fix your motor or at least get you on a proper path. One best for you and your family and pocket book.
My 2 cents. FWIW:
The Never do list: (common errors)
Never sand blast or bead blast any internal part of the engine. ( impossible it is to get it all out ) (use chem clean or walnut shell blasting or plastic media last)
Run a rod, that has spun a bearing , see the black/blued end caps, this is proof that the metal is HAS annealed ( softened) making it worthless.
Put the rods on backwards, see end cap arrow (forward)and oil squirter pointing to the Intake side of block?
Put the piston on backwards , see arrow on top of piston (forward)?
Swap rod caps,or use them backwards,or install bearing shells backwards, blocking oil holes.
Run a new head with out setting the lash or the valves will burn to a crisp. (check compression, or better do a leak down test using tool with same name.)
Fail to tension the Timing belt correctly, follow the manual precisely , it is not installed like 100 lb Accessory serpentine belt. Not at all . (doing this wrong, will destroy the front cam bearing, and oil pressure will be lost, and ...)
Forget to stamp a number on all pistons on top with a mark( punch or stamp) so you can put them back. as you found them. 1,2,3,4 (1 is front) (except new pistons, of course)
Put the motor back together, unless you at least use plasigauge on all bearings. 90 degree's from the SHELL splits.
Never just replace damaged bearing shells, on damaged crank journals, the journal must be ground and MIKED and checked for wear, out of round (very strict) and diameter. Most spun bearing need a new crank (regrind).
Never skip checking all running clearances, on bearings. Using math, "ID shell minus OD journal = clearance", (miked then calculated , then checking your MATH with PlastiGauge(tm) last as a backstop (sanity checks)
Never forget to set (file) ring gaps on all new pistons and or rings.
Never forget assembly lube. (real, not motor oil) "Race engine builders use just engine oil, but they are running it in 1 hour later, you are not him, so use real assembly lube.)
Never put huge money into a bad block , get another block. Inspect every detail of the block, before committing machine shop dollars to the old block, except cleaning and pressure checking it, for leaks. and any micro cracks.
Never mix parts or there locations inside the motor. Mark all parts ! if not already marked.
Never run parts that show signs of overheating, bluing, blackening, funny colored parts. Normal parts are tan. (natural oil varnish color).
I never ever touch any mechanical cleaning tool, to any piston, I use Berrymens chem dip and the parts come out like the day they were made like new... with no reduction in size of piston or LANDS ! nor any damage.
Never use piston land groove cleaner tools, ever (pre 1960s old school BS).
If you can't get Piston clean, find a pro who can. Use chem clean, Chem clean does not remove metal. The lands are precision ground, do not damage them in any way shape or form and WIN.!
Critical Dimension tables for clearances:
For my 96-98 1.6L 16v, See your FSM for exact spec. (the below is just a min. list of check points to give you an idea)
All in inches.
Cylinder bores are checked 2 inches from the top and 3-3/4" from the top deck and in the thrust side and 90 deg. away.
There are 3 factory piston sizes and the code is stamped on the the top of the piston and on top of block deck.
2111 Means cyl 1 is size 2 , cyl 2 is size 1 and so on.... to measure pistons and bores one must look in the FSM table.
#1 errata: the Geo FSM has an error , that deletes a zero in the rod max play! above correct !
#2 this is standard bearing clearance, there are 8 other bearing color sizes in the FSM.
OEM Manufacturing of engines: (took me forever to understand this)
Let me explain the reason for the extreme complexity of the FSM chapter 6, on the engine bearings and pistons.
The block was manufactured on a Gang inline engine machining system "CNC" like !
Although it is fast and efficient , it is however very crude, ( engine to engine , bore to bore ,variances huge).
The same is true for the crank. (the crank has special marks showing the sub size variances (the crude results of gang grinding) (they do the measuring after the gang grinding then mark the errors with codes)
The Suzuki bearing shells are all sub graded for the above codes.
The Bores in the rod big ends and all Block main bores are precision made. (or all this magic would collapse)
The mfg. then measures all parts and assigns a color code to each journal and bore. ( if out of range the part is melted down,destroyed or sold to GM ,LOL)
Then the engine is assembled with color coded parts for the crank , rods and pistons. (pistons are numbered not color coded)
When you rebuild the motor , your machinist will attempt .0001" accuracy and get real close, Something that was impossible in the factory (gang jobs). ( a whole new world now, exists for precision)
DO SO and win. (the factory gang machine tools were crude, so had sub sizes on parts, like pistons and bearing shells)
You can buy new parts, mike them, as to true sizes , and bore to get a fit YOU WANT.
If your crank shaft shells (new) fit bad, have your machinist grind your crank to match your shells !! After market shells may not fit, and finding factory shells, that fit can be a horror,(delays) with 10 or more days awaiting for deep SUZUKI stock on old parts.
This means you can grind (or buy) a ground crank that is exactly (for all intents and purposes) exactly .25mm undersized and the new after market bearing shells, will fit perfect and are supplied with the crank.( pro cranks do)
The best way to bore the cylinder bores, is to measure the bores, in 4 places each pre FSM, then using this data decide what over bore size to select ( ask your machinist for help deciding , please) then buy these correct sized pistons, that he recommends.
Next, take these new pistons to your machinist and he will then measure them for there true size ( it varies) and then machine each cylinder to match the exact size of your new pistons.(marked 1,2,3,4 clearly , I use emboss stamps)
Some pistons are precision too. but I'd never ASSUME THAT. MIKE IT first.
That is the correct way to bore a block , there is no other good ways.
The day 1, bore codes are stamped on the top front right side of the block deck, and at the bottom pan flange for the block bearings and on the center 2 fly weight the crank (outer edges, show the crank errors).
These codes tell you exactly what you got or had.(stock , day 1) What you have now , is only found with a Micrometer.(miked)
If the block is warped or the crank shaft bores, are not in line, get another block.
Do not spend $200 machining a block that can be bought used for $100 and is not in need of such machining. ( line boring mains comes to mind)
People with classic cars do that ,we do not need to., yet.
my 2 cents..... (in Canada , 5 cents )
rev 43 ++++ 4-25-2010 , 4-14-14 , video added. and more do not do.... and endless topic that.