The Throttle Position Sensor, or TPS testing  (theory)
and  TPS idle switch Calibration, USA:   No 89' Carb Kicks !
1.6L only. 
(1.8L SPORT ENGINE  is set to 1.5v  seen here)
The G16 TPS, has 2 parts,  It is Ganged !                                               
There are 3 bench tests here (video's).

This page assumes , there are not horrible bad associated things wrong, no web page can claim to list all damage possibilities by nincompoops, etc..

On/off  car TPS sensor tests, to follow:   ON = closed (very low ohms ,typ. about 50 ohms) OFF = Infinity.
Side 1, Idle Switch.   (this switch never produces 0 ohms, but does go below 300 ohms for closed , ECU expects less that 500)
Side 2 , the Pot side called TP pin, is the Trottle angle pin,  and allows for the ECU to enrich fuel with a fast right foot. (and many other functions related to this pin)

Buzz words:
CCW = counter clock wise ,  CW , guess?
W.O.T = Wide Open Throttle.  (over 75 % is WOT most cars)
TPS = Throttle Position sensor,  or TP and Throttle Position  , on newer cars 96+ it is called a Throttle angle sensor.
Pot = Potentiometer, or variable resistor. Pot for short !, The TP pin is the Pot  wiper pin.
TP pin is the Throttle angle pin (wiper) of the TPS, not the idle switch.  An electronics guy, calls this the wiper pin, that is because it wipes the carbon, as it moves and picks off a new resistance.
Glitching =  This means that each side, must move and be linear, in action, the POT wiper must not ever glitch to higher ohms , instantly as you move the TPS lever.
The idle switch must be linear from say 50 ohms to 300 Ohms,  (what ever your ranges is , it must be Linear in that range, not glitching open , in that range of closed) NO BOUNCING !
The idle switch will be near 300 to 500 ohms when it goes totally open ,this is normal and is not a glitch. It's just a carbon switch.
TV = throttle valve, that is the butterfly valve dead center in the TB ,the Throttle body.

M/T = Manual transmission,  A/T  , yes, automatic  (this is all ASE /SAE jargon.

The TP Pot side of this sensor is never calibrated (1.6L) we only calibrate the Idle switch .(the TP pin gets a free ride)
The 1.8L, this changed to no switch at all.
1.8L DOHC motor, is calibrated with a volt meter to 0.5vdc at idle.   no Feeler guages needed on the 1.8L sport motor DOHC 16V. There is no idle switch 1.8L on up.

Below, I cover both the  8v and 16valve engines. 
I will cover testing it and calibrating the idle switch ( if this switch side fails there will be no idle regulation, the ISC goes dead.)
Best practice, is to test this sensor, first then calibrate it.  (testing off car and on a bench, for glitching and non linear action, is a big help)
Guessing and throwing parts will cost over $200 for this part.
The   FSM instructions, are side linked here, so you can see for your self .


INDEX:  To TPS checks and Calibration.
My meter, I can't figure out  out to use my DDM  meter. (Or any ohm meter built from 1944 TO NOW)

We must first discount, all the crazy reasons to mess up the TV or TPS:
Before setting the TPS make sure, some nincompoop  didn't bugger your TV  IDLE stop screw.
Testing any TPS , on car is useless, if the Throttle valve plate does not close 100%  (.0005 to .001" TV plate to bore) (Dash pot (8v) defeated)  (there are no SUZ, published spec. here)
The official Suzuki word, on a bad TV, or that screw is , buy a new TB for $1000  ( a hard cold fact, to deal with! and is true for many other car manufactures !)
Toyota was sued  $1.4Billion, over less than a sticking Throttle Valve.  (a floor mat) so they keep there TV calibrations a secret, preventing dealers from doing it. Bla bla...
In the military we have a word for this,  "FU a soup sandwitch", seems some PO's (previous owners) can do the seemingly impossible.  File the TV fly plate (OMG) or bend the shaft.
If the throttle shaft "TV" is bent inside,  the TB) ,then the TPS ,may bottom out its side mounted adjust screw slots.
This is a hopeless state, for the idle switch calibration steps! 
The TPS must NEVER BLOCK the TV under any circumstances.  (same with floor mats or too tight throttle cables , etc)


Early 1989-90 8v TBI , TPS  Calibration and testing  (it has no idle bleed screw, yikes !)

Late  1991+  8v TBI and newer TPS testing .

Last 1991+ 8v TBI , and newer  TPS  Calibraion procedures.

16v TPS testing only. (92-98')

16v TPS Calbration only.(92-98')
                  
The multi-engine Feeler gage Charts:

How do TPS fail? (lots of ways)


 CALIBRATION GAGES : 10 years of methods and values.
Go, & Nogo feeler guage chart:  Suzuki in black ( with GM deviances)  USA FACTS !
The 8v is a TBI , throttle body injection
a.k.a. SPI Single point injection, by some. ( except some 1.3L Carb. cars sold only, in USA 1989, if true, hit back button)
The 89/90' TBI is a very hard car to adjust, because the Idle adjust , changed at ANY time, wrecks the TPS calibration(corrected in 1991, this folly)
MPI 92 -98' 1.6L only USA.  MPI is 16v Multipoint Injection motors.  
 
This table was made from real USA FSM data.
WARNING: THE DASHPOT DEVICE MUST BE RETACTED for all on car checks below (only 8v TBI, has that)
(tie it back, suck it back or remove it.)  (suck means, use  vacuum hand pump tool)
All tests are done keys in pocket. Key off.
The Feeler gauge Table 1: 
(the red numbers below , are odd GM /GEO numbers, I ignore them) All sizes are in inches (imperial USA inches) times 25.4 for mm.

Engine
1.3L TBI
1989
1.6L TBI 91 to 95'
1.6L MPI
92 to 98'
1.8L Sport
DOHC
89-90
TBI
Ohms
CALib.
.012
.016
.026
0.5Volts
note1
Threshold
NOGO
.016
0.20  (.035)
.037 (.031) N.A.
na
Infinity
GO
.008
.012
.020
N.A.
 note1
closed.

Closed means less than 300 ohms.
Open = infinity, (meter shows , infinity ohms)
Threshold is setting it, just so the switch has just closed.
If you removed the TPS and didn't index the body TPS pins to the TPS actual pin sockets, none of this will work correctly. You may cause the throttle to stick open.(a danger)
Keep in mind, when you set the .016" setting (example) you then remove the feeler , and the throttle retracts .016" and you get a solid repeatable less than 300 ohms each time.

GO = Closed IDLE  switch  ( less then 300 ohms)   (300 ohms is TPS spec, , ECU spec,  i think is 500) I use 300 ohms.
This is no gold contact switch, it's only CARBON!   It will never read zero ohms, like real gold contact switches.
Infinity resistance ohm, is open = ( meter DMM displaying O.R, over range, or  O.L, over load, see your meters operational manual, some show overrange in different ways)

NOGO= Open Switch.  (Infinity)  Most meters show infinity as Over-raange , O.L. or similar reading.
If your meter is a fixed range meter not auto ranging then ,use the 2000 or 2k ohm range
CAL = Only the  IDLE switch side is calibrated ! and CAL means you get the switch to just close, and stop.

The switch side is a bit strange, let me explain. 
The Switch side Low ,will vary from about 20 ohms (50 ohms is par) to 300 ohms  closed (experience) and then go to open circuit, very soon ,as you crack the throttle open just slightly.
The reason 3 gauges (feeler) are used is to compensate for human errors setting this switch.  (non 89-91)
If you get this wrong , the engine RPM , may  surge &  THROTTLE TIP-IN acceleration will hesitate ! ,due to, too late IDLE drop out or too early idle release,.

Exceptions:  Do not follow 91'+ 8v rules, for 1989/90 use these steps only.
ONE FEELER setting on older kicks.  (This car has no Idle air bleed screw, so is kinda screwy)
1989-90 Note 1:  (old kicks use only 1 guage , FSM)
(may need to be repeated ,every time you change the idle speed) (not fun ,that)
THE CAL feeler gage:   M/T is 5sp manual transmission. A/T is automatic tranny
0.086" M/T     we say in the business 86 Thou !  (yes , stack the feeler gages)
0.094" A/T (nearly a 1/10 inch !) huge. huh?
Rotate TPS fully clock wise, then CCW gradually until C to D switch closes.
There are  no , GO or  NOGO gage tests, for these 2 early years.
I'd do my best to get 800 RPM hot, then come back and set this, key off. 
Best is to repeat the calibration and then hot idle speed, and repeat unit all looks good. 
Yes, setting up 94 thou , is a pain,  no feeler gage set has this size.  I had to stack some feelers to get this.


BEGIN TESTING 1991+: (8 valve  8V , motor only)  The 3 video tests (mp4)
See 1989/90 here.
This is NOT CALIBRATION !   Check the inane first.
Do the 3 TPS tests below first, or the Cal. steps here, can FAIL.


There are 2 tests, to try, pick one?, ohms or volts. ( Volts is best, as that is Rubber Meets the Road !)
Even better is a scope on pin, B then C, testing both for glitches, a TPS when worn, loves to GLITCH !
A Live on car voltage test:   See drawing 1 below, for pin Identifcations. But do not disconnect the connector, until you wish to do an OHMS test.
Key ON:  (we will measure, the 4 pins live and hot, and use back-probling method) All connections, normal, no disconnects!

Set the DMM voltmeter to 20v range, and connect the minus (black) test lead to the battery, minus lug ,for best results.
Backprobe the TPS connector, using the needle on the red test lead. These simple tests follow below:  In each cases, the Dash Pot is Inactive. (it's retracted)
Test 1: Pin "A", power pin test.
(+5 vdc is applied to the TPS pot pin "A", if not , ECU is bad or this pin "A" wire is grounded out..)  (mine reads, 4.7v and is good)
Test 2: Pin "D", the ground pin test,  it must read 0 volts , zero volts.  if not the ground is bad. (cut wire,etc)

OK, the TPS now has power !
Test 3: Pin "B"  (if  this pin fails the ECU goes to limphome, this failure must be corrected first )  In limphome, the TPS is mimicked, and is now useless.
Pin B (TP pin) below,  the voltage will very,    Pin B (is pin 3 on 16v engines),   TP = Throttle Position.  now called Throttle Angle (modern EFI Jargon)
( from about 1 volt (higher if Dashpot is active) if this pin drops below 4% throttle angle (below about 0.2Volts) you will get DTC codes 21/22 errors. (I'm not sure which one is which)
The voltage will rise to at least 4v (5.2v max) as you advance the throttle, it must be smooth and linear, with no glitching , if it glitches, the engine power will hesitate (enrich mode failures).
Pin B (TP) the  normal range is 1 to 4v (idle to wide-open-throttle)  (see FSM here) ( the normal voltage idling is 0.6 to 1.5v )  The ECU will throw a DTC for 0v and 5v. for sure.
Pin B must not be stuck at 0v. it must not be stuck at 5volts.  Stuck at 0v means  Pin B  wire is cut or open or the TPS is bad, or 5volts not present on pin A.
Pin B stuck at 5v, is caused by a bad TPS or the ground wire broken. Pin D.
It,  pin B, must move, and  be directly proportional to throttle actions !  No voltage Jumpiness or drop outs allowed!  ( as you  vary the throttle (with hand) it must be linear and smooth at Pin B )
Make sure pin C (idle switch is at 0vdc (at idle  with Dash Pot retracted.)  Some GM books show schematics of pin D as 5v, this IS WRONG.   Pin C is( pin 2 on 16v engines)
Test 4:
The Idle switch closes, pin C , at idle and goes to near 0 volts at all times at idle,  or the ECU will throw  44/45 DTCs for this failure.. (pin C)( pin 2 on 16v.)
This switch closure tells the ECU, that you are at idle and the ECU, then controls idle, using the ISC air soleniod.
The calibration done wrong, can cause the switch to close too far, and cause TP output to be too low and throw codes 22s. (failure to use the NOGO feeler , caused)
These same voltage tests work on all 1.6L TPS engines, 8v or 16v.  see 16v pins here, for same tests.
The only true 100% accurate TPS test, is with a scope, all other ways , invites missing the glitches.!!!   DMM's can be very slow reacting, and miss them.!
Predicates:
A bad idle switch makes calibration , impossible. (if it can't ever close)
The TPS must never interfere with the TV. The TPS must not prevent the TV from closing 100%.            ( the "TV" is the Throttle valve.)
That means, if some one messed up? , then best, is to loosen the TPS , make sure the idle switch can close, do the calibration, then come back here and do all the TPS tests.  The TPS measures throttle angle and never ever changes, the physical angle by force. (the TPS, set wrong can jam a throttle)

The TPS can be tested on a bench too.  By using power supply and a 470k ohm resistor from the TP pin to ground.  (use a 6,9 or 12vdc battery )
You can even do so with a scope to see if the TPS glitches,  It can be tested 100% with proper tools.
Many shops just guess and pop you with $250 + labor. Some shops,  $500 for the TPS and then labor,  High way robbery , huh?

Warning, if the TPS delays opening, the idle switch , as you move the throttle pedal, a tiny bit ( .020") The ECU and ISC will fight you hard, and it will SURGE during that fight. A Very dangerous car to drive ! This  occurs because the ISC servo action was not canceled, at throttle tip-in.  Very bad that.
Normally what happens, at ECU pin A14,   it is at 0v at idle, then the driver moves his foot .020" (as measured at TB TV valve)  and the idle controls are ended.
If not, all hell breaks loose with the driver (Max Surge)  This is why we use the .020" gages
If the Pin A14 blue-white wire grounds, to the body of the car , the car is DANGEROUS ! ( Surge logger heads ! with driver) Seen and demonstrated on all 8v.)
Watch for DTC 45,   it may take driving far to see 45's , I'd not risk that. (most times, I never see 45s, even though it's bad)

The TPS resistance, OHMS test.  Use this same drawing, for voltage test too, (above)
key off.
Disconnect the connector, seen below, only for resistance tests do that.
Keep in mind this is the weaker of 2 tests (ohms/volts), the resistance meter is a slow device and can miss glitching, as you watch the DMM display.
Hint, move the throttle very slowly, to catch it messing up.
Hint2, check the whole range if the POT , with the TPS removed, for drop outs ! (non nonlinearities are drop outs)
Lets say , you have the meter connected to B/D  and see, say,  300 ohms, and as you turn the lever, this ohmic reading advances, then glitches to infinity.
Bingo, a dead spot and bad TPS. This is carbon wear inside,  all TPS, end like this, ALL !  Usually after 150,000 miles,......
A city car wears the idle section out, first;the highway cruiser wears out the 70 MPH sweet stop first,  no kidding. (really, who knows after 5 owners?)



We will make sure  the Pot resistor is not open A to D test, then the switch works and last that the TP pin works correctly.
If not ? then doing the calibration is hopeless. To test A to D use the 20,000 or 20k ohm range. Use the 2000 range test for test C to D.

How can the TPS fail?
1991 + 8V:  The OHMS test.
 A Cold test, KEY OFF,  unplugged. See Drawing # 1 Below:  This is a Cold Resistance test , looking for a bad TPS !

TPS Disconnected:  ( you can leave it bolted on , just unplug it)  Do not force any Suzuki locked connectors , press the lever and wiggle gently.
The TPS is  a very crude resistor , grossly crude , so do not look hard at actual OHMs readings,  (infinity is bad) So is glitching to infinity on C
Test 1:  (can be done with dashpot retracted or not, but I do , retract it) (for good reason, the wiper can hide a crack in the carbon section. )
Set meter to 20,000 (20k) range. OHMS.  Resistance or Omega  symbol , position. Use autorange if that is what your meter must use.
With any resistance meter measure pins A to D , this is called an "end to end" POT test.
It will read  3500 to 6500 Ohms  this reading tells you what to expect next,  lets pretend you read 4032 ohms. (its good and not Infinity,  that be bad)
Good !, not an open TPS,  do more tests.
Test 2:
The TP pin  Pot test:  (ECU acutal throttle angle output side test)  see wiper? the wiper picks off new resistances as it moves.
Now connect meter to pins B and D .
Next you must retract the dash pot (8v only) with vacuum tool or by unbolting the Dash pot, or wire it back,  see OEM drawing below.

The Pot. side must read  near  zero to 2000 ohms at idle stop  position and 2000 to 6500 ohms as you approach wide open throttle .
In my example here, this test will vary from real low (pretend 1000 ohms to 4000 ohms)  It must be linear and not glitch as you move the TV.
Raise the throttle to see this.
Now, very the throttle from idle to WOT (wide open throttle)  the resistance must very smoothly, if not the POT is NOISY or has worn spots (common).
NO Glitch'ing ALLOWED here.
A noisy pot will make the ECU false enrich fuel mixture  (MPG low?) or hesitations driving,  that recover. (or the opposite, gross lean , accelerating)
This noise can cause a delayed power,  this is the primary usage for this pot for the ECU to detect your fast gas foot. (fast throttle angles, net fast power, called enrich mode.)
If you know carbs.  the TPS acts as a "high speed accelerator pump" the squirt of  fuel you see, inside a carb Air horn. Same deal with EFI ,only it's electronic.
See the next frame below , for idle switch test.
Test 3 is the idle switch. seen next..
The 8V factory TPS data page:

1991+ 8 Valve motors, continued, we are still testing , not caibrating yet.  See 1989/90 here.
We now test the TPS switch side.  Pins C and D.
Key off, 
Disconnected TPS ! Unpugged.
DMM Meter set to 2000 or 2k Ohm range.

THE 8V TBI DASH POT MUST BE RETRACTED !

if you don't retract, and do the calib. , you WILL have a huge flat spot off idle, or worse. (idle hunting)
PINS  C > D test  (drawing 1 )
The TPS- switch portion ,should be closed  (30-300 ohms TPS spec.) at idle and open circuit, otherwise.     [ some books say 0-500 ohms, 500 is ECU software limit, I think]

This switch tells the ECU you want it to control Idle and to cut fuel during deceleration.  My 8v TPS switch reads 15-25 ohms at forced idle. (many others read 50)
An Ohm (resistance ) meter is needed to test this device.  If the switch is wrong (open) then see the Calibration set up, below.

The below links are TPS calibration procedures for the 8 valve engine then last, the 16v.
Do not condemn the switch until it fails , off the car doing a resistance test.
If it fails  this test, then calibrate it on car. That is the next topic. If it cant be calibrated , it is bad. (or the TV and TPS are fighting each other mechanically)
End of TPS testing.

  1991'+ , 8V TBI TPS Calibration of   TPS idle switch side: C and D.     The 3 video tests (mp4)
(all years 8v)  (this procedure assumes the TPS is not bad and that it was installed correctly , Indexed )                                                                  NOT FOR 16V see 16v here. 
See 1989/90 procedures here.

Prelimary setup:  (have the 3 feeler gages in hand,  or stack  them,  only 1 feeler is needed to do just the CAL. (the others are for validation steps)
  1. Ignition Key is OFF.
  2. Retract the DASH-POT device , by using a hand vacuum pump, wire ties, or unbolt it from the throttle body , ( I use vacuum)
  3. Loosen the TPS mount screws. a tad, so the TPS can move easy, and  rotate.  See photos, at end of this page.
  4. Insert the CAL feeler size gage into the throttle stop screw gap. (open throttle, to do that)  0.016".
  5. Disconnect the TPS main connector , this connector has 2 other pins, for the injector , please ignore the injector pins.
  6. Attach the DMM  ohm meter (resistance mode ) to pin C and D of TPS connector, set range to 2000 ohms scale on DMM. (or autoranged)
  7. Rotate TPS CW , see meter go to infinitiy.  FYI:  CW = clock wise.  CCW = counter clockwise.
  8. Rotate TPS CCW , very gently and get the TPS switch to close, just barely. 50-100 ohms is typical. (below 300 is TPS spec) {ECU wants below 500 ohms}
  9. If the TPS screw mount slots bottom out, here the TV valve shaft is bent or the valve stop screws were VIOLATED, the TV must close 99.9% down to .001" TV/bore gap.
  10. Lock down the TPS side screws. Cheers !, you are now calibrated. The next steps are an audit of your work.
  11. Do the NOGO step. (the inserted .020" gage opens (infinity)the  TPS failing this, will cause TIP-in throttle bogs , driving.
  12. Last is to insert the .012" GO gage,  the TPS is closed (< 300 ohms?). (NOGO and GO gage sizes)  (this will not fail , if the TPS is good) IF fails?, then TPS is bad, (has carbon gaps)
  13. Put back the Dash pot, as you found it. (un-do your defeat method, @ step 2)
  14. The TPS is now calibrated and validated.  (no Code 44s now !) code 44 means this switch is bad. on  pins C to D.
If this procedure is done  incorrectly,  you will get a dead ISC or  way late, throttle enrich mode, and temporary bogging. (hesitations)

If the TPS switch will never close  , even with it completely removed, then it is bad. 
If it fails on TB and is good off body, , TPS was mounted WRONG !  it is must be indexed correctly ! The Throttle must not prevent the TPS from closing, and vis versa.

FSM TBI actual pages on calibration.
Never adjust the painted or capped off, throttle stop screw , for any reason. it is a factory calibration for minimum air supply {tiny}.  (except 89/90 years)
Below are the actual FSM pages for TPS calibration:  TBI 1991 and UP.

8v Page1 with pin connections.

8v Page2 with feeler guage spec.

8v Page3 end.

End FSM 8v.


EARLY 1989 and 1990 only TPS Calibration  and idle speed          
These 2 years, are very unique.
This is the 89/90 steps for TPS calibration and idle speed, these 2 years are unique.                 (see other pre 91 uniquenesses here too)

END all 8V TBI testing and Calibration.

16 valve 1.6L  MPI  TPS  CALIBRATION procedures.     The 3 video tests (mp4)
 not for 8v, see 8v here.
The 1996 to 1998 real FSM calibration procedures for TPS is   Here  and   Here.
Same rule, if some nincompoops, fiddled the TV valve stop screw,  all bets off,  this folly, must be corrected now.
The tests are really the same as the  8v
  • Different  pin numbers
  • No dash pot.  The 16v uses software for a Dashpot function.
  • Different  feeler gauges sizes 

The TPS must not be bad.


Factory TPS calibration procedure for the 16valve MPI  92-98 Sidekick or Trackers. <click with comments.

The 16v TPS has no pig tail connector like 8v has, but has  4 pins,  and pin 1 is on the bottom. as seen below.
FIGURE 2:  Below is terminal 1 to 3 test for the POT test.
As you can see pin 1 is the bottom pin.
The below is the photo for the OHMS test, but in fact this same drawing shows you what pins to test for the live voltage tests. (use the 8v rules for these test above)
16 valve MPI only. all years. 92-98
The on car live, key on, voltage test is here. You must leave the connector connected,and us a back probe  technique, to read the voltages.
Pin 1  Ground.    Gray/ yellow    0 Volts.
Pin 2   Idle switch out               Blue/white    (0v when at idle 5v off idle ) Some GM books show pin 1 as 5v, this IS WRONG.
Pin 3   TPS  TP pin wiper POT or TP throttle angle   Gray wire  output varies from .5v to about 3.5v  idle to WOT.
Pin 4   +5vdc from ECU.            Gray/red
All colors are harness colors.  GM and SUZUKI may use different colors on wires, but pin 1 is always down.


FYI:  TPS functions are all explained.


16V TP Calibration method (FSM steps expanded)   "CAL steps)
 The TPS mounts to the TB (throttle body) and the TV, the Throttle Valve.

Adjusting the TPS switch  (Throttle Position Sensor Switch)  It's just a variable carbon resistor inside, no magic or electronics, just carbon.
Also, the switch part is not a real gold zero ohm switch ,it too is carbon, reading about
300 or 50 ohms.
{ FSM is Factory Service Manual }
Pre-conditionals: 
TPS not bad ,so test it first (using volts above live or restance tests).

See chart above (table) for exact Go  , NOGO and CAL feeler gauges.

Tools:
A set of feeler gauges.  a $2 tool.
A set of test connector pins (female really makes this job easy,  I just remove them from old connectors laying around)

If  the TPS was removed and then put back on not indexed correctly, none of the below will work correctly.
(the TPS is mounted preloaded, if you do not mount the TPS correctly, it blocks open the throttle with horrible idle failure results and more.... )
Attach an Ohm meter (DVM set to ohms resistance starting on the  2k range "2000 ohms") per instructions. (auto ranged meters, works ok too)

Make darn sure the throttle plate is closed by looking at the throttle stop screw and noting that the TV bell crank is hitting the stop screw tip.!  True IDLE !!!
If it does not, then you have a mech. TB problem, correct that first, (a gunked up Throttle body? or below butterfly plate ? or too tight throttle cable)

Begin the calibration.  ( I will cover 92-98 1.6L 16valve MPI method here)  A GO /NOGO method this is called.  (factory methods)

Note the Gap when closed, the stop gap is 0.200 inches exactly, if some nincompoop didn't fiddle that (fix that first or TPS will never work right, nor the ISC work right.)  This screw has a BLOCK plate.
The TV valve must be closed near 100% (99.9%, I call it) The valve plate to bore, is about .0005 to .001" gap, the smallest of  gap and not touching ! (there is no spec here,  I'm just telling, you the facts)
 Really, the TV is 100% the gap is just to prevent the TV butterfly from jamming in the bore, that is the only purpose of the bore gap. 
  • The Ignition Key is turned off,.
  • TPS end Connector unplugged, do not force it. All conn. have lever locks,  and Suzuki don't sell connectors. (just harnesses, if lucky)
  • On my 1996 the top of the TB has this huge black beauty plastic cover blocking all linkage,; remove that first,.
  • Place or Insert ( a 0.026"  feeler guage betten the TV crankstop and stop screw head.  (Removing  the cable bracket seen below is a great idea. Just 2 nuts hold it)
  • Loosen TPS side screws, so they are only slightly tight.   See photo of off car CAL. 
  • Then rotate the TPS CCW, then rotate CW it until the TPS (pin1 and 2 ) just barely (at the threshold) go to Infinity on DMM ohms scale.  (Counter clock wise = CCW)
  • Tighten the TPS side mount  screws.
  • Remove Feeler gage, note the  Ohm meter (Resistance meter) shows continuity (less than 300 ohms) (ECU expects less than 500 ) (do not expect zero ohms!)
  • If the TPS screw mount slots bottom out, here the TV valve shaft is bent or the valve stop screws were VIOLATED, the TV must close 99.9% down to .001" TV bore gap.
  • Insert 0.037" feeler gage here (stacking the gages works great) NOGO step
  • The ohm meter now reads Infinity. ( not 300 or 50 ohms  or less,or some other value , but true infinity)
  • Now insert the 0.020 inch feeler guage. and the reading must show 300 ohms or less.  GO step  ( I get 50 ohms , usually, do not expect 0 ohms)
  • Tighten all TPS screws (a double check) and put back its connector.
  • if any of these steps fail. repeat them all.  (if it wont calibrate the TPS is bad or mounted wrong or the TV is not closed 100% or someone bent the TV shaft or the TPS is not indexed to the body right.)
To be sure,must guys just set it to .026" drive around the block and all is well.
This method guarantees some tiny fractions of inches ( of over/under-travel.)  See chart on top of this page.

If this calibration is done wrong the following may (will) result.
  1. A dead ISC, or one that is active when you accelerate say to 1000 RPM, 
  2. The engine  will never idle or will idle out (DIE) at stop signs, etc. Or RACE at high speed,  the IDLE will NOT regulate. and Fast idle commands(ECU) will never happen. (A/C fast idle)
  3. If not closed this idle switch, at idle the timing freeze jumper then fails to freeze timing , as desired, for spark timing, procedures.
  4. if set  (closed switch) to far into the TPS range, then the car , will have TIP-IN bogging. Too late TPS idle switch opening. The ISC will fight your right foot in a very strange way....
  5. My 96 Suzuki will surge above 1500 if the switch stays closed too far into cruise range.  
  6. When you cut the throttle and the TPS fails to close, the EGR cut will fai, as will the dashpot effect, anti neck snapping feature, of cut fuel mode.  
  7. The ECU now throws, DTC errors for the TPS.
  8.  There are many features and function in the ECU that trigger off this TPS switch, most or all will malfunction.
Real TB 16v:  1996 acutal.
 
Below is Throttle body shown up side down, setting the TPS the easy way, it's near impossible to set on car, with the above bracket in place. ( 2 nuts hold the braket on, only)
The 16v Calibration point below: 



end calib.


TESTING the 16V TPS. THE OHMS test. Unpugged (no power testing)   The 3 video tests (mp4)
(I recommend testing it before calibrating the sensor )
The TPS can fail  this way:
The Throttle Position pin , or TP
The TP pin,  A.K.A.  POT wiper pin or throttle angle pin : (Cold ciricut test)   
 
(POT side is never calibrated , only the switch side is calibrated on any of  the 1.6L)
 
(this side causes fast acceleration rich mode "power enhancement" and causes WOT (wide open throttle mode) and causes Unflood mode at crank time.
Key off
Connector unplugged at the TPS 16v:
DMM/DVM: meter set to 20k Ohm range:  See Figure 2 above for pin locations.
The pot side of this TPS pin  1(bottom) and pin 3 , varies from 300 ohms to 6500 ohms, as you move throttle from min to max.
If it does not run in this range or has glitches or has dead spots, it is bad.  A $217 Suzuki part,  (after market parts are $100 more) find a used one and pray.
It doesn't have to be accurate , just consistent and linear.  !!  Again, this  side , is never calibrated. !  Despite crazy Internet myths to the contrary and accuracy bull.)
The switch side and the pot side are GANGed..
Hot testing:
You can conduct  a key on voltage test , the same way as the 8v using the Gray wire (wiper) and check for smooth advancment of the voltage as you advance the throttle.

DOA:  Show and tell:  (when things go wrong, never hit your TPS, oops , damaged , I bought a spare like this.! )
The Below internals of my TPS, are cracked, car will never idle.  Look close and see cracks.
DO not open the TPS like I DID Below !, this is a destructive examination !  HACKED OPEN!  shows cracks , that can happen.
This TPS was stuck in UNFLOOD mode, car will never start. due to fuel cut at cranking time.
Click to zoom image.  Figure 3: 
This damage happed during and engine removal. GOT HIT !
It also shows you how the carbon works, the Gold wiper device is missing here.
This shows you why the switch part never hits 0 ohms, like a real switch, that is because this one is Carbon, not gold contacts.
My  broken TPS, internals, hacked open

Seeing the ceramic substrate and the carbon thin films , is very visual and clear what is going on inside.
This photo clearly shows the 2 devices inside, the unit. a switch (right) and the POT. on the left.
the 2 (not shown) wipers short the inner and outer rings as they wipe.
The TPS is infamous to go intermittant first, then fail hard.
IF the TP pin has glitches as you accelerate?  then the ECU causes a hesitation when you demand power. This is caused by worn carbon on the above rings, end of life.

1.8L DOHC engine (or 2.0L) Sport Suzuki TPS calibration on the throttle body. "TB".
(1.8L and bigger motors. have no SWITCH at all now, one just sets the volts and you are done) {0.5v at idle , key on)

  1.  All TB cables are loose. per the FSM, normal slack, they are never sit  tight (very dangerous if set tight.  The same for cruise option cable.
  2. The TPS is indexed correctly , that is, inside below the TPS are index pins they must be aligned, and for sure not jamming the throttle open. Remove it and check it.
  3. Make sure the throttle fully drops the butterfly and end crank against the stops, there is a screw there, that bottoms out, do not ever touch that screw.
  4. Key on, no need to start engine.
  5. Connect the DMM volt meter to ground , TB casing,  and the red lead to the TP pin, via back probing of the TPS connector .
  6. loosen the TPS  screws until just a tad loose.
  7. Adjust the TPS to 0.5v that is 1/2 volt, exactly 
  8. Lock down those TPS side screws.  You are done. Now the ECU will enter idle mode and activate the ISC system.

(which pin is TP ?. well, one is ground , one is 5v, and TP is low volts) It's the gray wire, with no stripe.)







METER MADNESS: short and sweet.  Digital Multimeter.  or DMM for short. DVM?  Dig. Volt meter.    More on DMM here.
Using an Analog meter (like the$10 one at Walmart) is the best way.  You can see the glitching real good with an analog meter (needle meter)
Some nicer meters, (Fluke) has a DMM with the analog scale on the bottom of the LCD screen. This is nice too.
There are 2 meter types (DMM) one is fixed ranged and the other is auto ranging ( more tricky to new users)
Before using any DMM, you must make sure it is good.
Battery inside not dead.  (mine is  9v)  most meters will warn you of weak battery or meter just dead.

Put meter on OHMS mode (if auto) if manual ranger,  use R X 20k. (to start) or R x 20,000.  (this means multiply screen reading by 20,000 ) Same with Rx1 , times 1. (or direct)
A manual ranger meter, is more NOOB friendly. 
Short the meter leads,  meter will show , 0.0 or 0.2  ( a very low number , this is a short or continuity !) 
This reading means a switch/wire or connector, is good. (a switch is closed)
The Auto ranger has  dynamic symbol on the LCD screen,   Omega Ω ,  K and M   ( one or the others) These symbols tell you the range IT selected. 
Typically:
Ω means RX1  (what you see is what it is)  K = 1000 ,  multiply the reading by 1000, the symbol  "M" is  for million, multiply reading by 1,000,000
With meter set to ohms,  and leads not touching anything,  it will show as,  O.L. or O.R  for over load, or Over Range.  this tells you , the  reading is infinity, (or open circuit).

Some meters, use  a DASH or a DOT as overload.  (odd or  cheap meters) Harbor Fright anyone? (Read the manual , please)  One cheap meter shows only a single 1 for over-range. 
Now attach  a  yellow + Violet ,+ Red resistor ( most common) to the meter leads it will read 4.7K or 4700.  on the scale depending on the meter.
Any resistor you can find, that you can decode the colors.... from 100 ohms to say, 10,000.  (my favorites are 100 ohms and 1000, in my tool box waiting.)
At this time , you can trust the meter, on ohms only ,after the above 3 checks  , 4 counting the battery check.

To check volt?s , just measure a 9v battery or car battery on the 20vdc range.   (we call these , sanity test,  or does this meter work today?)
I will skip amp's as this is tricky and is for advanced users. (not true with an AMP CLAMP meter)
Do not  try measuring amperes , until you get help or you will blow up the meter.
Connecting the Amp meter to a battery will blow up the meter or at the least  its fuse. True ammmeters are connected in series with the load.

General Information on TPS:  (and facts and myth debunking) 
There are 2 sections in this device, the top section  is the Potentiometer (POT) or as some call it a variable resistor. A,B and D.  (1,2,3,4 on 16v)
So there are 2  tests and only 1 calibration.
Side one is called the IDLE SWITCH , the other side, is the TP (throttle position side or Throttle Angle), This side form a basic Potentiometer, (POT) or variable resistor.
The calibration is only conducted with the SWITCH SIDE.  C and D Pins.  (8v example)
Failure of Idle switch:
If the switch fails , the car will NEVER idle correctly ( it will vary with load on the engine) 
This switch is not a gold contact switch, it's just a carbon chunk,   It has only 2 readings. less than 500  ohm and infiinity.   Never expect zero when closed ,like most switches.
The Fast idle control  features will fail, the Cut fuel and EGR may fail. The ISC will be dead ! 
The late to open idle switch, will case Tip-in fuel mixing problems.  Tip-in as in your right foot tips in the throttle and engine hesitates a bit.
The POT side TP SIDE:
Myth 1:  No, the TP side does not set fuel injection rates, that is, the ohms (voltage) does not get scaled directly to injection quantity. But does in LIMPHOME.
The TP does get watched by the ECU, for rate of  TV action,  you move the throttle fast and the ECU sees that and goes to ENRICH mode, until the MAF/MAP catches up.
If you have a throttle hesitation problem then do the  range test or the POT and ohm meter (resistance meter) test.
If  POT TP wiper pin  B or 3(16v) (reads above +3.75vdc  ,when trying to start the car, the car will NEVER start.
The rule for WOT is "About" 75% and above Throttle angle is Unflood mode.  The TP usually has 4vdc output at 100% throttle. can be more..
Un-flood mode.   I mention this, because the ground can be broken to the TPS at pin D  (p4-16v)and the car will never start.  Unflood mode forever. CUTFUEL cranking.
The POT side, has 2 rules (besides that the actual accuracy is very crude, some pots are 3k and some are 6k ohms,  a crude device. 
1: The end to end ohms on your POT must be steady at all times. if it reads 4k is must, be so, at all times (that is how your's is and works)
2: As you measure the Pot wiper pin, to the other end ground  pin,  say  D or (16v pin 1)  the TP pin must vary from below 2k ohms to max what ever you read in line above.
The key here, is that the wiper pin must NEVER jump open (infinity) as you move the throttle.
This is very common , this failure of the TPS.  after 100k miles many  TPS can fail on any car, and depends, on utility, be that, city ,highway or mix,  when that happens.
It it rare for any TPS to last the life of the engine. (about 300k) 
This page is only complex because of the 10 years  covered and 2 engines and evolutions of the same.
Never ground out the +5vcd refr. pin on the TPS, or you will blow up the 8v ECU trace,  16v is better protected.
Never hot wire any ECU output pins, or you will damage these simple ECU's . (hot to battery Plus or ground)



TPS FAILS: (TPS , it's wires. or bad ECU 5vdc)  (the DTC code #  change for 96+ but the words and reasons don't)

TPS switch open,  LIMPHOME IS IN EFFECT car starts, no idle controls, at all , ISC will be dead. DTC 44  , and 45 ( 45 is stuck at ground , very rare this , is a   harness short)
Other pins open will throw over voltage DTCs for TPS. (or under of 5v is missing)
Open ground pin,  the TPS goes to 5v and ECU may give  warning and engine may not start and  DTC code 21
 (  over 3.5vdc on the TP pin can cause UNFLOOD mode and all injections stop, depends on ECU year and its software)
 (22 is stuck low)
The TP pin pin  can do that (22) and is a bad TPS. or open 5v  wire (like 5vdc is dead on the 5v pin of TPS, 5vdc gone is bad ECU )
The TPS can crack inside (see photo just above) or wear out inside and give totally random symptoms.
The ECU has a tendancy to not see TP glitches (debouncing logic) and will cause hesitations, when advancing the throttle.
If the TPS errors are bad enough and constant the ECU may go, to limphome mode  and car does start.  (it the ECU, mimics the  bad TPS and runs VERY BADLY)

Keep in mind a failing TPS may send voltages to the ECU that the ECU likes and believes and Unflood mode gets activated. (silently; no DTC)
One guy mis-indexed the TPS prongs to the matching prongs in the TB,  and he got Unflood mode.  (4vdc on TP pin) all injections cut.

WOT is about 3.5v or more at the TP pin ,  and cuts all fuel , cranking...




The 8V below: TPS calibration point. TPS is located on the other side of the throttle shaft.
f
The feeler guage goes here above , to set the TPS calibration.


See More Tools ?

Who's on First, What's on second, the little horrors, that you have, that I can not see.  From inane to profound. As they say , you can fix stupid.  Not you, the Stupid PO !
  • The TPS is not plugged in.
  • The TPS wires, are cut or worse cut and spliced on backwards. (corroded connectors after 20 years, no !)
  • The TV was molested. by the PO. The TPS is jamming up the TV ,or the TPS is jamming up the TV,  neither are allowed.
  • The TPS was calibrated with the DP active. (DP = dashpot on rear of 8v TB) TB means Throttle Body.
  • The TPS was calibrated, but not tested with all 3 feeler gages,  91'+
  • The TPS was mounted wrong and not indexing to the internal tabs , thus jamming the TV at idle and making TPS calibration , impossible.
  • The wrong TPS installed.
  • The PO can't afford a $15 book,  amazing, but true.
  • The TPS is dead, because the ECU is in Limphome, (TPS unplugged too does that, besides others  (MAP/MAF/ECT/IAT, cause that.)
  • The TPS, is dead because you have a A/T ECU installed on the M/T car and the A/T park pin is in the wrong logic state (usually claused by missing clutch switch and related wiring horrors!)
  • The wires were cut to the ECU or TCU or Cruise controller, or shorted by the Audio/Alarm installer from HELL !  "TPS WIRES"
  • The engine has huge air leaks , making the TPS ECU monitor software report false TPS errors.    (ECU sees, idle switch closed and RPM is a 4000 RPM,  low plenum vacuum...?)
  • The ECU +volt DC pin is at 0v,  making the TPS uselsss, and DTC codes thrown. 
  • The 3 throttle cables jammed and not allowing the TV to fully close.  The FSM shows how to set the cables, (loose) Throttle, A/T Dentent cable, and cruise cables, all set wrong by the PO.
  • PO removed the TV butter- fly plate and filed it for inane reasons. (an abomination!)
  • The PO didnt like the low idle so took  hammer and drift pin and bent the TV fly valve more open, for more air, or bent the shaft. 
At idle the TP  output pin , is about 1v
The idle switch is very near 0v . zero volts.
If not , it's wrong. see my TPS tests above.

PO = Preivious Owners, most likely very drunk or who knows.


rev. 13  , 4-2-2013